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It is advisable that when the sun is scorching and very shiny one needs sunglasses so that they can see well but finding the ones that will fit precisely to a person is very demanding at times. It is very much important to some while to some they view sunglasses as being the same and hence they will choose any from the shops as long as it will fit them and ensure they use it during the sunny days. When people are looking for sunglasses in the shops they are aware that the ones which are made up of the metals and the others which are made up of plastic are the most common types of sunglasses that one can get with ease in every store that is near them.

People are slowly adopting the idea of going natural by establishing the fact that when they are using the sunglasses which are made up of the wood and bamboo they are very much friendly to the environment. Products that are made from wood and bamboo are strong sometimes stronger that the ones made of plastic and that’s another reason as to why people think that it is a better option to turn natural.

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We can’t forget the impact of the innovation on people who are directly involved as it is a source of jobs and job creation makes people depend on their creativity to ensure prosperity. Everyone who wants them can get with ease and with and at a reasonable cost.

The Art of Mastering Leather

Great Tips When Buying RFID Wallets

There are numerous individuals out there who are planning to buy the best gifts for men but are clueless as to what they should purchase. Fortunately, you came to the right place since we will be giving you easy to follow tips and guidelines on what you need to do when planning to buy a gift for men. In order for you to be able to make your man happy this Christmas, it is smart that you ponder on some few things first and that you do research regarding gift idea before you buy something. It can be a little challenging and even overwhelming to search for the best gift for guys out there since there are numerous stores out there that sell different kinds of items for men. If you do your research properly and search for excellent tips on the web before buying, then it is a guarantee that you will find the best boyfriend Christmas gift out there. And one of the best out there is by giving your guy a top quality leather wallet.

You can find a lot of leather wallet on the web today, however, not all of them are top quality. There are some few factors that you will have to think about before you buy a leather wallet on the web. You can always ask for pieces of advice or recommendations from individuals you know who have experienced buying leather wallets before. It is critical that you get to double check the quality of the RFID wallet before you buy it and give it to the man you love most.

Your man will definitely love his new wallet, especially if it is a top quality leather wallet. It is truly critical that you take the time to consider the design of the RFID wallet before you buy it. Minimalist wallet looks classier and they are very easy to carry. Checking the materials used in making the RFID minimalist wallet before buying it is very important. Poorly made RFID money clips don’t look good – they look cheap.

Aside from checking the quality of the leather wallet and finding out more about holiday gift ideas, it is also important that you double check its price. Take note that expensive is not always better when buying RFID wallets. It is critical that you always check the price and the quality of the leather wallet before you buy it.

To be famous as Dou Jingtong became the goddess of Ouyang Nana super bass

To be famous as Dou Jingtong Ouyang Nana became the goddess of lead: 90 who recently began to complain about their old group, Yamada Nao, the 13 year old beauty mixed model is to stimulate these old aunts". The Yangtze River bring forth the new through the old, now is the ten generation of Icon in the world. There are two generations of star Dou Jingtong has stimulated offbeat aesthetic, musician Ouyang Nana to teach you the elegant lady, our aunt generation "the sisters really give way to their ~ Ouyang Nana Ouyang Nana from the" Beijing love story "to the" Idol ", Nabi growth we all see in the eyes, from the sentimental and lively the little girl, now the tall girl is more beautiful, nabi. Is a lovely type Nabi vitality mushroom cool, often a light play everywhere. With a cute Mickey hat, an active bib, and occasionally a little sweet cloak, it’s all about the big sister next door. Ouyang Nana, but she can be transformed into a gentle and graceful little goddess. Ouyang Nana doesn’t have a pair of big legs to run around with cello all the time. Dou Jingtong 3. Dou Jingtong, all right, maybe Dou Jingtong isn’t beautiful, but she’s definitely the most special one! Maria Tung, who inherits all the advantages of his parents, is also a big, long legged sister. Handsome and casual is her silk ribbon. Dou Jingtong, I was most impressed by her when she was pink. You say Faye Wong is unique, and Maria Tung is better than mom. Dou Jingtong’s simplest white T-shirt was also exposed to her own taste, and her brow looked very delicious. Yamada Naomi, Yamada Naomi, this little girl, who was a 13 year old, small, half model, who broke into a fire at micro-blog, looked at her and looked at himself. Deep facial features unique hybrid has a perfect, eyes of God is more like talking, delicate and touching. Yamada Naomi is such a small goddess stared at you, I want to be a bend. Absolutely what she says, I promise! Did Yamada Naomi want to have a daughter who was more beautiful than she looked at the perfect side? Come on, you have a ticket? Liu Chutian Liu Chutian remembers the "Mi month biography" in a cute little tiger Liu Chutian? She is the most beautiful I’ve ever seen kid ~ completely goddess Pizi, and a super dress for her mother, she is the "dream girl" standard! Small Chu Tian a pair of innocent eyes clear out. Liu Chutian looked up at the sky! I want to grab her as my daughter!

出名要趁早 欧阳娜娜窦靖童都成了女神   导语:前阵子 90 后们开始组团抱怨自己老了,今天 13 岁的日法混血小模特的山田直美就来刺激这些老去的“阿姨们”。长江后浪推前浪,现在已经是十代 Icon 们的天下了。有星二代窦靖童另类刺激审美,有音乐家欧阳娜娜教你做高雅淑女,我们这些“阿姨辈”的姐姐们真正的该让位给她们咯~ 欧阳娜娜   欧阳娜娜   从《北京爱情故事》到《偶像来了》,娜比的成长我们全都看在眼里,从青涩活泼的小姑娘,到现在的高挑少女,娜比也是越来越美。   娜比是属于活力可爱型的菇凉,经常一身轻装到处游玩。带着可爱的米奇帽、穿着活泼的背带裤、偶尔披着甜美的小斗篷,完全就是邻家“大妹妹”的装扮,非常讨喜。 欧阳娜娜   但是她也可以摇身一变,成为文静典雅的小女神。 欧阳娜娜   这年头没有一双大长腿都不好意思背着大提琴到处跑了~    窦靖童   3。窦靖童   好吧,可能窦靖童不够美,但她绝对是最特别的那个!继承了父母全部优点的童童也是一个大长腿的妹子。帅气随性是她的丝带儿。 窦靖童   我对她印象最深刻的就是她一头粉发的时候。你说王菲独树一帜,童童比起妈妈来是有过之而无不及。 窦靖童   最简单不过的白 T 恤也被她穿出了自己的味道,紧锁眉头的表情很有味道。 山田直美   山田直美   这个小姑娘就是最近在微博爆火的 13 岁日法混血小模特,看看她再看看自己,简直无颜存活于世啊。   混血儿独有的深邃五官已经很完美了,有神的大眼睛更像是会说话一样,楚楚可怜。 山田直美   这样的小女神直勾勾地看着你,我都要被掰弯了。绝对是她说什么我都答应啊! 山田直美   看着这完美的的侧颜是不是很想生一个比她还美的女儿?别闹了,你有男票么?    刘楚恬   刘楚恬   还记得《芈月传》里可爱的小老虎刘楚恬么?她是我见过的最美的小盆友了~完完全全的女神坯子,又有一个超级会替她打扮的妈妈,她简直就是“梦中女儿”的标配啊!   小楚恬一双清澈无辜的大眼杀伤力满分。 刘楚恬   抬头仰望天空都辣么萌!好想把她抢过来当女儿啊!相关的主题文章:

Still take fortune give China Everbright International Buy rating winavi

AMTD Wealth: give Chinese Everbright International buy hot column capital flows thousand thousand shares of stock on the latest rating diagnosis simulated trading client sina finance App: Live on-line blogger to tutor Hong Kong level2 market through the mechanism of cards group as garbage power generation enterprises dragon head, continue to achieve new projects, such as the end of last year, spending $280 million RMB investment in Henan garbage power generation project, and Shandong Juxian garbage power generation project, helps to drive performance. The State Council issued the "ten articles of water" put forward water treatment objectives, it is estimated that by 2020, the state must invest 4 to 5 trillion yuan of funds. China has previously said it intends to increase the average daily production capacity of water projects from 3 million 500 thousand tons to 10 million tons in 3 to 5 years. The performance of the group, the first half of last year net profit of 1 billion yuan, year-on-year growth of 24%; period income 3 billion 770 million yuan, year-on-year growth of 28%, and achieved 14 new projects and 1 supplementary agreements signed successfully in the first half of the year, involving a total investment of about 3 billion 978 million yuan. At the end of last year, the announcement of green environmental protection business, including biomass integrated projects, hazardous waste treatment, wind power and photovoltaic power generation projects, was separated from the United States stock exchange independently, which is conducive to improving economic efficiency and reducing costs. The stock price of the group was pressed earlier, but dropped to about 7.1 yuan, the lowest level has reached the bottom rebound. On Thursday, it broke through the 10 day and the 20 antenna, and it is expected to continue to rebound in the support of the national policy, new projects and spin off green environmental protection business. Recommended to buy 8 yuan, the target of 9 yuan, fell below 7.5 yuan corrosion. (both) go into Sina Finance shares

尚乘财富:给予中国光大国际买入评级 热点栏目 资金流向 千股千评 个股诊断 最新评级 模拟交易 客户端 新浪财经App:直播上线 博主一对一指导 港股level2行情 翻看机构底牌   集团作为垃圾发电企业龙头,持续取得新项目,例如去年底斥2.8亿元人民币投资河南垃圾发电项目,并取得山东莒县垃圾发电项目等,有助于带动业绩表现。   国务院发布的“水十条”提出水治理目标,预计至2020年,国家须投入4至5万亿元人民币的资金。光国早前曾表示,有意将水务项目的日均产能,在3至5年内由350万吨增加至1000万吨。   业绩方面,集团去年上半年纯利10亿元,按年增长24%;期内收益37.7亿元,按年增长28%,并于上半年成功取得14个新项目及签署1个补充协议,涉及总投资额约39.78亿人民币。   此外,去年底公布正考虑将旗下绿色环保业务,包括生物质综合项目、危废处理、风力发电及光伏发电项目,分拆于联交所独立上市,有利于提高经济效益及降低成本。集团早前股价受压,但跌至7.1元左右低位已触底反弹,周四更突破10天及20天线,在国策支持、新项目展开及分拆绿色环保业务受憧憬下,有望继续回升。建议于8元买入,目标9元,跌破7.5元止蚀。(双双) 进入【新浪财经股吧】讨论相关的主题文章:

The domestic aesthetics of frigidity in the depth of Liao Dynasty also needs to be traced back to th www.34aaa.com

The depth of Shu Liao Liao made "frigidity aesthetics" also need to be traced back to the Song Dynasty – Sohu Intro: "the frigid wind" the official statement is Normcore, elegant French women are the fan children, namely minimalist taste argument, represents the simplicity and restraint is simplified by the high level of wisdom. Nowadays, "frigidity" has become a trend of fashion aesthetics, from clothing, furniture, daily necessities to decoration and potted plants. Usually this style readilyidentified from Japan, northern Europe and other foreign regions, but only a handful of people in the traditional China comments summarize domestic "frigidity aesthetics". Since the Song Dynasty, after the Yuan Ming, Chinese in painting and calligraphy, female, furniture, eating light, simple, full pursuit of nature, nature, elegant aesthetic style, is behind the rational indifferent, quiet, refined and cultured the literati culture as the cornerstone. Different from that in the past, today love frigid wind are not cold, they are keen on the fashion trend of the crowd, a group of people who are most affected by consumption culture. And they don’t fall in love with the values behind a trend, but define their identity through consumption. In modern society, we no longer pursue the essence of culture and the quality of individuality, but just follow the fashion trend made by consumer culture. "Frigidity" is prevalent in recent years". Here the "frigidity" did not mean that the physiological significance of the ED on the right, open the way: "frigidity" is a kind of aesthetic style from passion, publicity and sexy, "cold wind" means a minimalist, simple, elegant, An Jing, indifference, alienation, temperance, rational and firm temperament. Keen on frigid wind people dressed as neutral paper trendsetter "". Cold wind dress, loose, plain, simple clothes, dilute the original curve of the female body, no longer emphasizes the feature buxom to please the eye of man. Men who are indifferent to the wind no longer emphasize wide shoulders, narrow waist and muscle. A light and complete explosion Taobao, silk vulgar, low-key sense of superiority against luxury brand exaggeration. In addition to frigid costumes, Muji and smokeless fire, cool Nordic furniture, wood products, simple and elegant flowers of succulents…… When the "frigid wind" blowing, we in Japan "and" silence? Aesthetics, the Nordic style of Scandinavia, the Bauhaus Art and minimalism in painting. As a matter of fact, we have long enjoyed the domestic "frigidity" aesthetics". Thin thin Yuan Ming paintings, this paper models the Nordic seckill; the leave me alone to play to the extreme, such as the eight Nizan literati painters, far more than today’s Department of abstinence male God more apathetic; Li Yu advocated in the "xianqingouji" in today’s light diet is vegetarian, eating light fasting, wind origin; literati garden quiet is a prelude to today’s aman retro hotel; elegance concise, bustling washed study Wenwan, after Apple electronic products Zen design concept of Jobs’s explosion. There was a song of the cold, wind from the end of the Qing Ping, the cold wind began in the Song Dynasty one thousand years ago. In Song Dynasty, the Han and Tang Dynasties rough heroic, beautiful and imposing Monument)

深度丨廖廖 国产的“性冷淡美学”还需追溯至宋代-搜狐   导语:“性冷淡风”官方说法是Normcore,法国的优雅女性们都是这个范儿,即极简主义的有味说法,代表着极简与克制,是去繁求简的高级智慧。如今,“性冷淡风”成为一股时尚审美潮流,从服装、家具、生活用品到装饰物、盆栽,无一不涉。通常这种风格容易被认为来自日本、北欧等国外地区,评论人寥寥却在中国传统中梳理出了国产的“性冷淡美学”。自宋代以来,历经元明,中国在书画、女性、家具、饮食上全面追求清淡、简逸、自然、幽隐、雅致的审美风格,背后则是以理性淡泊、宁静致远、温文尔雅的士大夫文化为基石。不同于古,今天热爱性冷淡风的人们其实并不冷感,他们是对时尚潮流最敏锐的人群,也是受消费文化影响最深的一群人。而且他们并不是爱上一种潮流背后的价值观,只是通过消费来定义自己的身份。现代社会,我们不再追寻文化的本质和个性的品质,只是紧紧跟随消费文化制造的时尚潮流。      近年流行“性冷淡风”。此处的“性冷淡”当然不是指生理学意义上的ED,正确的打开方式是:“性冷淡”是一种远离热情、张扬与性感的审美风格,“性冷淡风”意味着极简、质朴、安静、素雅、淡漠、疏离、节制、理性、坚定的气质。   热衷于性冷淡风的潮人打扮成中性化的“纸片人”。性冷淡风的女装,宽松、素色、简约的服饰,淡化女性身体的原始曲线,不再强调丰乳肥臀的性特征来取悦男人的眼球。性冷淡风的男装也不再强调宽肩、窄腰和肌肉感。淡淡的逼格完爆淘宝?丝的俗气,低调的优越感对抗着奢侈品牌的浮夸。   除了性冷淡的服饰之外,还有无烟火气的无印良品,冷色调的北欧家具,简朴淡雅的木制品、无花的多肉植物……   当“性冷淡风”吹过,我们在日本的物哀和?寂美学、北欧的斯堪的纳维亚风格、包豪斯艺术和极简主义绘画中寻根。事实上,我们早就盛行过国产的“性冷淡美学”。瘦削单薄的宋元明仕女画,秒杀今天的北欧纸片人模特;把leave me alone玩到了极致的倪瓒、八大等文人画家,远比今天的禁欲系男神更加冷感;李渔在《闲情偶寄》中提倡的清淡饮食是今日的素食、轻食、断食风的先声;宁静致远的文人园林是今天的安缦复古酒店的前奏;素雅简练、繁华洗尽的书房文玩,完爆乔布斯的禅宗设计理念的苹果电子产品。   有宋一代的性冷淡风   风起于青萍之末,性冷淡风起于一千年前的宋代。有宋一代,汉唐的豪迈粗犷、堂皇富丽的纪念碑式的盛世美学随着朝代更迭而烟消云散,取而代之的是平淡天真、直率自然、古朴简约、闲和严静的禁欲系和性冷淡风的审美。   在老庄、禅宗和理学的影响下,宋代开创了内敛而保守的新审美,一句“存天理,去人欲”定下了宋代“性冷淡美学”的基调。理学对“器”的鄙视和对事物内在的“理”的推崇,深刻地影响着宋人的思维与审美。相比起汉唐的粗豪狂放,宋人更加冷静、理性而内敛,唐人外露而直观的表达,被宋人探究内在的理性而取代。      《听琴图》      《瑞鹤图》   宋代内部的政治冲突和对外的积弱无力,也加深了文人审美中的老庄思想。老庄思想反对人文雕饰,崇尚平淡自然。宋代院画与文人画的“淡泊以明志,宁静而致远”是性冷淡风的最佳注脚。出自宫廷御笔的《听琴图》、《瑞鹤图》也没有富丽堂皇的皇家气象,而是清寂枯瘦、清雅古奇的宋代士人美学。隋唐五代的人物画让位于枯藤老树离人的宋代山水画。浑厚蓬勃、元气淋漓的盛唐颜体,让位于瘦硬骨感、精气四溢的徽宗“瘦金体”。《虢国夫人游春图》中雍容华丽的贵妇化身为《东坡寒夜赋诗图》中的削肩纤腰的仕女。      《虢国夫人游春图》      《东坡寒夜赋诗图》   隋唐的画家们致力于如实地描绘眼睛看到的世界,巨嶂山水画成为一时经典。南宋伊始,文人画家在绘画中倾注内心情感。山水画逐渐脱离了写实,成为文人画家抒发胸怀,表达自然观与人生观的写照。   文人士大夫的绘画喜欢借物咏志,盛世时,他们为怀才不遇而怨天尤人,他们化身为绘画中一派淡泊宁静的梅兰菊竹,象征着自身品格的坚韧,以及静候明主慧眼青睐的耐心。乱世时,他们化身为山林松壑间的隐逸高士,在萧瑟、荒凉和虚空的画面中隐约透出老庄的情怀。落花无言、人淡如菊,便是宋代文化精英的“性冷淡风”的审美追求。   宋人的“外枯而中膏,似淡而实美”的性冷淡风不仅是美学思潮,更是有宋一代的文化特征。无论是诗词、绘画、书法、器皿等等,都崇尚古朴、闲散、枯寂的气质。如果说汉唐是青春澎湃、性致勃勃的青春少年,宋代则是成熟内敛、萧散澹泊的中年大叔。中国的性冷淡风由此兴起。   从白富美到纸片人   审美是一个时代的政治、文化的倒影。唐代的张萱《虢国夫人出游图》等人物画中,那些雍容华贵的仕女是烈火烹油的盛世写实。周?的《簪花仕女图》中的空虚寂寞冷,就是晚唐盛极而衰的写照。比起盛唐人物画中的富态丰盈的贵族仕女,兵荒马乱的五代十国的《韩熙载夜宴图》中的仕女开始减肥了。      《簪花仕女图》      《韩熙载夜宴图》   宋代的仕女画愈加冷淡与清瘦,与豪迈雄健、意气风发的唐代人物画相比,宋代的无论仕女画还是文人图都不再有浓墨重彩,有些甚至采用完全白描的手法,画风极其“性冷淡”。画中的仕女人物也由汉唐的“白富美”变成了单薄而冷淡的“纸片人”。   宋、元、明、清的文人精英把女性的柔弱和病态视为美,背后有着深层次的心理需求。儒家思想用“道德美”取代了“外形美”,认为对外貌不必过度重视与修饰,要重视道德的美。女性的身体、意识与欲望都被否定,女性成为被压抑的“第二性”。汉唐的自然健硕的女性美,逐渐演变成陶渊明在《闲情赋》中所描述的:束窈窕之纤腰,安弱体于三秋。宋代之后,这种“柔弱之美”愈演愈烈,病愁瘦削、慵懒娇羞、弱不禁风的仕女成为人物画中的唯一女主角。   儒家的“存天理、去人欲”从道德上塑造了中国古代“禁欲系的纸片人”。另一个原因是,阴柔的男性需要从更加羸弱的女性身上才能寻找到自身残存的雄性气质。残酷的政治和森严的皇权把文人士大夫压抑得失去了雄性特征。汉唐时期的刚强雄健不再,男性阳刚之气的瓦解让男性的自我意识丧失,对外侮不能雄起,对皇权只能跪伏,他们只有把女性审美设置为多愁多病身,才能缓解失意男子的焦虑与不安,才能凸显自身残存的雄性气质。倘若是唐代的健美丰盈、欲望旺盛的女子,他们hold不住。   我们在西洋画里看到的女子大多袒胸露乳、矫健壮美,这与古希腊人赞美身体的传统分不开,更大的缘故是欧洲尚武,金戈铁马的骑士或者野蛮勇武的森林蛮族的雄性荷尔蒙爆棚,并不需要刻意营造柔弱多病的性冷淡女子来满足男性的心理。也不需要创作出寂寞、失意、幽怨的画中怨妇等着男人来搭救。   女性的身体审美从来都离不开“政治正确”。珠圆玉润是汉唐开放盛世的标配,“阴柔为美弱为用”是儒家思想下合格的“禁欲系大家闺秀”,文革宣传画中的女性必须硬朗强壮才撑得起新中国的“半边天”。   今天的性冷淡风也被贴上女权主义的标签–不再用丰乳肥臀来取悦男性。禁欲系的瘦削身材意味着节食、运动,是勤奋积极、坚强意志和自我控制的象征。这是今天的性冷淡的瘦削女子的“政治正确”。   禁欲系的明代家具   冷硬的外形、灰白的色调让北欧的家具成为今天的“性冷淡风”家具的经典。事实上,一千年前的明代家具的冷感与禁欲比之斯堪的纳维亚有过之而无不及。      性冷淡风的北欧家装   明代家具的结构方正牢固、表面光滑圆润、造型明快简洁、不尚雕饰而注重木质的天然本色–比起繁复雕花的清代家具、错彩镂金的洛可可家具,明代家具无疑是妥妥的性冷淡风。      明代家具      清代家具   崇尚性冷淡风的明代家具,当然与明代文人士大夫的参与设计分不开。家具的形式反应了明代文人追求古朴、简逸、幽隐、雅致和自然的生活理想。明式家具并没有一味追求舒适和华贵,而是注重文人精神的表现,在明式家具的设计、摆放和使用当中,体现了明代文人的哲学观、价值观与审美观。譬如天圆地方的认知、天人合一的思想、士农工商的等级秩序、品茗赏画拂尘观花的文人雅集,凡此种种,都影响着明代家具发展的方向。   我们可以说,如果没有明代文人的审美观与价值观,就没有明式家具的诞生。古朴雅致的明式家具与繁复华丽的清代家具,两种截然不同的风格背后,隐喻着明、清两代文人士子不同的理想和追求。   明代文人的清高倨傲、澹泊致远的士气,“清风一枕南窗外、闲阅床头几卷书”的生活理想,孕育了古朴、简洁、雅致的“禁欲系”明代家具。而清代的文人士子在新主的“大棒与萝卜”的双重调教之下,激越的士气被消磨殆尽,开始追求奢靡华贵的生活。   清代之后的文人阶层,少了明代文人的清高孤傲、淡泊宁静的士气,加上商业文化的熏染。乾隆朝伊始,家具的风格大变,注重豪华、厚重、精致、艳丽的风格,精细而繁复的雕饰题材多采用富贵、喜庆、吉祥的隐喻,与明代的古朴、清朗的风格背道而驰。乾隆朝之后的家具风格的大变,背后是文人士大夫阶层的风骨和节气的剧变。明式家具的性冷淡风一去不复返,中国家具就此走下坡。   当然,明代的家具也并不是全然“性冷淡”。明代中期,经济的繁荣掀起了豪宅建造的热潮,从而带动家具的精致化与昂贵化。在严嵩、西门庆等权贵与富商的的新宅子里开始流行黄花梨、紫檀木等高级家具。当新贵与富豪用昂贵的紫檀、黄花梨来制作雕工精细的家具,以彰显身份的时候。文震亨在《长物志》中展现了另一种文人化的家具。他的标准是雅俗之分:质朴与自然,简单和简洁,就是雅。繁复的雕刻,多余的装饰,就是俗。   富豪权贵之家一定要选最昂贵的紫檀木或黄花梨做原材料,描金、彩漆、大理石镶嵌一个都不能少。而以文震亨为代表的文人士大夫阶层则讲究“不露斤斧”的自然与简洁。他们认为柏树、乌木、杉木、湘妃竹等杂木也是家具的理想材料――只要家具的形制和装饰足够“性冷淡”。   以文震亨为代表的上层文人品味,与严嵩、西门庆等高官富豪的品味并不一致,严嵩与西门庆家中的彩漆、描金、泥金、大理石镶嵌的家具,都是文人精英心目中的俗物。《金瓶梅》里的那些描金拔步床和大理石八仙桌奠定了西门庆暴发户的身份标签,注定他永远无法迈进上层阶级――“性冷淡风”成为划分阶层的藩篱。   “禁欲系”的口味   汉唐的饮食文化与宴席仪式都是贵族式的。隋、唐、五代的民众在温饱线上苦苦挣扎,但是并不妨碍贵族们追求奇珍异食。除了“穷水陆之珍”的奢靡饮食观之外,唐代和南唐的宴席上还流行歌姬伴舞和演绎乐器。贵族豪门都蓄养家妓,精心训练–“蓄妓数百人,每置一妓,价盈数十万,教以艺,又费数十万,而服饰珠犀金翠称之。”《韩熙载夜宴图》表现的就是唐代的奢靡饮食观与宴席文化。   天下没有不散的宴席――哪怕是隋唐和五代十国的“豪门夜宴”也有散席的一天,自宋代开始,皇帝为了巩固皇权,压制大贵族集团,重新培养一个忠心耿耿的阶层,于是开科取士,隋唐五代尚属?丝阶层的文人鱼跃龙门,取代贵族豪门成为国家的统治集团。加上南宋朱熹的禁欲主义的理学盛行,贵族豪门的奢靡饮食观和宴席文化一去不复返。   到了明代中后期,文人审美已经成为主流。江南文人主宰着文坛和画坛,文化圈、艺术圈一派清淡素雅的江南Style,时人的饮食观、宴席文化也由江南文人品味所决定。吟诗、作画、赏月是宴席聚会的主题。   明代的宴会比隋唐和五代只多不少,但是宴席的形式与文化发生了天翻地覆的变化,由奢靡的贵族风转变为淡雅的江南文人风,不再以奢侈豪华为荣,也不再有数十家妓一旁服侍。明代画家所作的宴席图大多是一派性冷淡的《园林雅集图》。      《园林雅集图》   南宋和明代早期禁欲主义盛行,朱熹说:“饮食,天理也;山珍海味,人欲也。”理学主张“存天理、灭人欲”。人随便吃饱就行了,不能追求美食,这是吃货们的黑暗时代。   到了明代中期,商品经济发达,享乐主义兴起,人性启蒙思想开始暗涌,王阳明的心学把人的心性置于天理之上。人的理性与欲望压倒了朱熹的“存天理、灭人欲”。王阳明的心学为时人对美食的追求提供了理论基础,“修生之士,不可以不美其饮食。”但是这种美食的欲望并没有放纵与泛滥,士大夫并没有一味追求山珍海味。奢靡饮食之风并没有成为主流,掌控美食主流的还是江南文人的品味。文人士大夫的菜单讲究食物简单、清淡,以“养生、养气”为重。身为士人阶层,饮食应该有节制,而不能像富商官宦一样争奇斗富,过分追求山珍野味。   彼时文人的饮食哲学是:本味、真味,这是追求味觉感官的最高境界。他们认为饮食应该像他们的书画品味一样,提倡“复古”,所谓饮食的复古就是“疏远肥腻”,热爱蔬菜。李渔的《闲情偶寄》里提倡的“蔬菜第一”,无疑是今天的简餐素食的性冷淡口味的先声。   如果用一个字描述明代中晚期的饮食观与宴席文化,那就是“淡”。清淡是味道的本源。“淡足养德,淡足养身,淡足养交,淡足养民。”清淡的口味被上升到道德修养的层面。   消费文化制造的时尚潮流   今天热爱性冷淡风的人们其实并不冷淡,他们是对时尚潮流最敏锐的人群,也是受消费文化影响最深的一群人,再冷感也是剁手党,再禁欲也是拜物教。   沉浸于消费文化中的潮人们,紧随着每一次时尚热潮,从奢侈品味到英伦学院风,从波希米亚风到田园风,从复刻潮流到禁欲系。我们并不是爱上一种潮流背后的价值观,我们只是通过消费来定义自己的身份。   如果说宋、元、明的性冷淡风以理性淡泊、宁静致远、男权low逼的士大夫文化为基石,那么今天我们追随的性冷淡风更多的只是一种视觉的愉悦感,不知从何而起,也不知何时而终。我们不再追寻文化的本质和个性的品质,只是紧紧跟随消费文化制造的时尚潮流。   宋元明的性冷淡风由文人决定,而今天的文人已经在时尚潮流中缺席。今天的性冷淡风或者任何时尚都与文人无关。或者这么说,今天的文人才是“性冷淡”的最佳阐释者,他们的不修边幅就是彻头彻尾的性冷淡look,从王朔到莫言,从阎连科到贾平凹,没有哪个文人让大家有性趣。唯独剩下一个冯唐,极力宣泄着裤裆的肿胀,仿佛希望以一己之骚情来弥补文人阶层的冷感。   而我们的专业设计师与艺术家也没有在传统的精神遗产收获多少灵感,几无美学上的创新与贡献。性冷淡风吹过一千年,到今天只剩下一串油腻腻的手珠、一堆似是而非的翻版明式家具。   (本文摘选自凤凰洞见《中国其实是“性冷淡美学”的文明古国》,作者独立艺术撰稿人廖廖)相关的主题文章: